All about fish’s white blood cells.

If you want to see pictures of fish white blood cells prior to reading the abstract, I’ve some on my Facebook “Fin” page – http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.392480934134195.85320.188036301245327&type=1&l=19d8c40a6b
The granulocytes of fishnext term

P.M. Hinea

a Fisheries Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, P.O. Box 297, Wellington, New Zealand

Received 16 June 1991; Accepted 20 September 1991. Available online 10 August 2007.

The occurrence and functions of granulocytes in previous termfishesnext term varies between and within groups. Primitive groups (agnathans, holocephalans, elasmobranchs) all have eosinophils with homogeneous round granules. Elasmobranchs also have eosinophils with granules containing an axial crystalline rod, which is the sole eosinophil type present in lungfish. Comparative study suggests that in elasmobranchs and lungfish, heterophils and different forms of eosinophil are all of the eosinophil lineage. Agnathans, holocephalans, dogfishes and lungfish possess fine granulocytes that may be related to neutrophils of teleosts and mammals. Holosteans and chondrosteans have eosinophils and neutrophils, and as in some elasmobranchs and lungfish, basophils are relatively common. Teleosts have neutrophils which are ultrastructurally, and possibly functionally, similar to mammalian neutrophils. More rarely they have cells with elongated granules similar to elasmobranch and reptilian heterophils. Teleost eosinophils have large round homogeneous granules, and cytochemical and functional studies indicate that in some groups, particularly cyprinids, these cells represent an undifferentiated eosinophil/basophil lineage. Roles in inflammation, enzyme cytochemistry, function and evolutionary trends are discussed.

Key words: previous termfishnext term granulocytes; eosinophils; basophils; neutrophils; heterophils; ultrastructure; enzyme cytochemistry

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International veterinary guidelines for the transport of live fish or fish eggs

International veterinary guidelines for the transport of live fishnext term or previous termfishnext term eggs

P. de Kinkelin Corresponding Author Contact Information, R.P. Hedrick

Laboratoire d’ichtyopathologie, Virologie et Immunologie Moleculaire, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78352 Jouy-en-Josas Cedex, France

Department of Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616 USA

Available online 22 September 2003.

Abstract

There are two existing codes of practice and one draft proposal with guidelines for the transport of live previous termfishnext term and previous termfishnext term eggs. They provide information for national policies and a level of international standardization. Their efficacy depends, first on implementation by the national official services which tends to restrict previous termfishnext term movements, and second, on acceptance of these guidelines by those involved in the production and utilization of previous termfishnext term. Thus, a critical balance between theory and reality must be achieved if the goals of such international codes are to be realized.

Keywords: previous termFishnext term; Pathogens; Control; Policies; Guidelines; Transfer

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Dr Richmond Loh

BSc, BVMS, MPhil (Vet Path), MANZCVS (Aquatics), MANZCVS (Pathobiology), DipPM.
Veterinarian | Adjunct Senior Lecturer Murdoch University | WAVMA Communications Committee Member |
Secretary Aquatic Animal Health Chapter – Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists (ANZCVS)
The Fish Vet, Perth, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA. Mobile Veterinary Service for fish and other aquatic creatures.
http://www.thefishvet.com.au
Ph: +61 (0)421 822 383

Living off a fish: A trade-off between parasites and the immune system.

Living off a fishnext term: A trade-off between parasites and the immune system

A. Sitjà-Bobadilla Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author

Instituto de Acuicultura de Torre de la Sal, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Torre de la Sal s/n, 12595 Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón, Spain

Received 22 October 2007; revised 14 March 2008; Accepted 27 March 2008. Available online 4 April 2008.

Abstract

Research in previous termfishnext term immune system and parasite invasion mechanisms has advanced the knowledge of the mechanisms whereby parasites evade or cope with previous termfishnext term immune response. The main mechanisms of immune evasion employed by previous termfishnext term parasites are reviewed and considered under ten headings. 1) Parasite isolation: parasites develop in immuno-privileged host tissues, such as brain, gonads, or eyes, where host barriers prevent or limit the immune response. 2) Host isolation: the host cellular immune response isolates and encapsulates the parasites in a dormant stage without killing them. 3) Intracellular disguise: typical of intracellular microsporidians, coccidians and some myxosporeans. 4) Parasite migration, behavioural and environmental strategies: parasites migrate to host sites the immune response has not yet reached or where it is not strong enough to kill them, or they accommodate their life cycles to the season or the age in which the host immune system is down-regulated. 5) Antigen-based strategies such as mimicry or masking, variation and sharing of parasite antigens. 6) Anti-immune mechanisms: these allow parasites to resist innate humoral factors, to neutralize host antibodies or to scavenge reactive oxygen species within macrophages. 7) Immunodepression: parasites either suppress the previous termfishnext term immune systems by reducing the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes or the phagocytic activity of macrophages, or they induce apoptosis of host leucocytes. 8) Immunomodulation: parasites secrete or excrete substances which modulate the secretion of host immune factors, such as cytokines, to their own benefit. 9) Fast development: parasites proliferate faster than the ability of the host to mount a defence response. 10) Exploitation of the host immune reaction. Knowledge of the evasion strategies adopted by parasites will help us to understand host-parasite interactions and may therefore help in the discovery of novel immunotherapeutic agents or targeted vaccines, and permit the selection of host-resistant strains.

Special K for fish.

This abstract details the use of another anaesthetic drug in fish.

Abstract
August 1, 2004, Vol. 225, No. 3, Pages 417-421
doi: 10.2460/javma.2004.225.417

Intramuscular anesthesia of bonito and Pacific mackerel with ketamine and medetomidine and reversal of anesthesia with atipamezole

Thomas D. Williams, DVM Megan Rollins​‌ Barbara A. Block, PhD
Tuna Research and Conservation Center, Monterey Bay Aquarium, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, CA 93940. (Williams); Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Oceanview Blvd, Pacific Grove, CA 93950. (Rollins, Block)

Objective—To determine anesthetic effects of ketamine and medetomidine in bonitos and mackerels and whether anesthesia could be reversed with atipamezole.

Design—Clinical trial.

Animals—43 bonitos (Sarda chiliensis) and 47 Pacific mackerels (Scomber japonica).

Procedure—28 bonitos were given doses of ketamine ranging from 1 to 8 mg/kg (0.5 to 3.6 mg/lb), IM, and doses of medetomidine ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 mg/kg (0.1 to 0.7 mg/lb), IM (ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 2.5:1 to 20:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 1 or 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used. The remaining 15 bonitos were used to determine the anesthetic effects of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg (1.8 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg (0.2 mg/lb). The mackerels were given ketamine at doses ranging from 11 to 533 mg/kg (5 to 242 mg/lb) and medetomidine at doses ranging from 0.3 to 9.1 mg/kg (0.1 to 4.1 mg/lb; ratio of ketamine to medetomidine, 3:1 to 800:1). Doses of atipamezole equal to 5 times the dose of medetomidine were used.

Results—IM administration of ketamine at a dose of 4 mg/kg and medetomidine at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg in bonitos and ketamine at a dose of 53 to 228 mg/kg (24 to 104 mg/lb) and medetomidine at a dose of 0.6 to 4.2 mg/kg (0.3 to 1.9 mg/lb) in mackerels was safe and effective. For both species, administration of atipamezole at a dose 5 times the dose of medetomidine reversed the anesthetic effects.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a combination of ketamine and medetomidine can safely be used for anesthesia of bonitos and mackerels and that anesthetic effects can be reversed with atipamezole. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:417–421)

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Yours sincerely,

Dr Richmond Loh

BSc, BVMS, MPhil (Vet Path), MANZCVS (Aquatics), MANZCVS (Pathobiology), DipPM.
Veterinarian | Adjunct Senior Lecturer Murdoch University | WAVMA Communications Committee Member |
Secretary Aquatic Animal Health Chapter – Australian and New Zealand College of Veterinary Scientists (ANZCVS)
The Fish Vet, Perth, Western Australia, AUSTRALIA. Mobile Veterinary Service for fish and other aquatic creatures.
http://www.thefishvet.com.au
Ph: +61 (0)421 822 383

Human pee versus cow poo.

Need I say more?

 

Aquaculture International: Journal of the European Aquaculture Society
Volume 20, Number 4 (August 2012)
Comparative evaluation of the fertilizer value of human urine, cow manure and their mix for the production of carp fingerlings in small holding tanks
Authors: B. Jana 1, Sujoy Bag 1, Sukanta Rana 1
Author Affiliations:
1: International Centre of Ecological Engineering, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, 741235 West Bengal, India
Source: Aquaculture International: Journal of the European Aquaculture Society, Volume 20, Number 4 (August 2012)
Page Numbers: 735 – 749
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Abstract:
Abstract

Advanced fry of Indian carps and post-larvae of freshwater prawn were reared for 120 days in 18 small holding tanks using each treatment in triplicate as: (a) non-aerated and (b) aerated fresh human urine (0.01%), (c) cow manure (1.8 kg tank-1), mixed treatment with cow manure and human urine under (d) iso-phosphorus and (e) iso-nitrogenous conditions and (f) control. Examination of water quality, primary productivity of phytoplankton, plankton and fish growth from different treatments revealed that the total fish yield was maximum in the cow manure treatment (621.5 g tank-1) followed by the mixed treatments under iso-nitrogenous (428 g tank-1) and iso-phosphorus (333 g tank-1) conditions. Fish yield in different treatments was the direct function of the gross and net primary productivity of phytoplankton which, in turn, were directly related to the concentrations of nitrate and phosphate levels of water as well as their ratios in different treatments employed.
Citation: B. Jana, Sujoy Bag, Sukanta Rana . Comparative evaluation of the fertilizer value of human urine, cow manure and their mix for the production of carp fingerlings in small holding tanks. Aquaculture International: Journal of the European Aquaculture Society, Volume 20, Number 4 (August 2012), pp. 735-749, <http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F37A463506909C46629&gt;
URL: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4F37A463506909C46629

What does prickly pear cactus have to do with ammonia toxicity?

 

 

Journal of Fish Diseases
Volume 35, Number 8 (August 2012)
Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpioL., against lethal ammonia toxicity
Authors: Y Y Sung1,2, R J Roberts 3, P Bossier 4
Author Affiliations:
1: Department of Aquaculture Science, Faculty of Fisheries and Aqua-Industry, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
2: Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
3: Hagerman Fish Culture Research Laboratory, Hagerman, ID, USA
4: Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Belgium
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases, Volume 35, Number 8 (August 2012)
Page Numbers: 563 – 568
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Abstract: Exposure to TEX-OE®, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpioL., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92 mg L-1NH3, a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21 mg L-1NH3). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE®-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE®accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion.
Citation: Y Y Sung, R J Roberts, P Bossier . Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpioL., against lethal ammonia toxicity. Journal of Fish Diseases, Volume 35, Number 8 (August 2012), pp. 563-568, <http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DD7B39D4FC6893A47EE&gt;
URL: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4DD7B39D4FC6893A47EE

Is it good practice to have wrasses as a natural weapon against sea lice in farmed salmon?

Wrasses are becoming popular biological control agents for sea lice in farmed salmon. However, whenever introducing another animal into the mix, there is always cause for concern that they could themselves carry diseases or be vectors for transfer of diseases to the primary cultured fish. This is a great article that analyses the various aspects of wrasse health and the potential impact they could have on farmed salmon.

Journal of Fish Diseases
Volume 35, Number 8 (August 2012)
Diseases of north European wrasse (Labridae) and possible interactions with cohabited farmed salmon, Salmo salarL.
Authors: J W Treasurer 1
Author Affiliations:
1: Ardtoe Marine Laboratory, Acharacle, Argyll, UK
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases, Volume 35, Number 8 (August 2012)
Page Numbers: 555 – 562
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Abstract: There have been several reported studies of wrasse health but none of these has shown transmission of wrasse diseases when stocked with farmed Atlantic salmon. Most of the studies have focussed on bacterial and parasite issues, including treatment of bacterial diseases with antibiotics and vaccination of wrasse. Classical and atypical furunculosis have been reported in wrasse following stress, and wrasse have been susceptible to vibrio infection. Further study is required on the vaccination of wrasse for furunculosis with latent carrier status to maximize survival. There are studies on viral diseases such as infectious pancreatic necrosis, infectious salmon anaemia and pancreas disease and although these did not give any undue concern for salmon health, there is also scope for further study in this area. Resident parasite communities of wrasse are largely host-specific and do not appear to be a threat to salmon. Given that wrasse have not, to date, been a vector of disease in salmon, attention should be placed on maintaining best practice in cohabiting wrasse with salmon. Other issues that should be addressed are good welfare of wrasse in pens and identifying measures of this, the identification of losses of wrasse in pens, being alert to potential emerging diseases through health screening of mortalities and assessing the risks associated with carrying forward wrasse from one salmon production cycle to the next. Issues of exploitation by fishing on wild wrasse stocks and improved biosecurity may be addressed by the increased movement by the industry to the stocking of farmed wrasse.
Citation: J W Treasurer . Diseases of north European wrasse (Labridae) and possible interactions with cohabited farmed salmon, Salmo salarL.. Journal of Fish Diseases, Volume 35, Number 8 (August 2012), pp. 555-562, <http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4E2DA96341DFD80E991E&gt;
URL: http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4E2DA96341DFD80E991E